There are several negatives, each with its special uses.
The negative stands at the beginning of the sentence, except when it denies a single word.
laA is ‘no’ and also ‘not’.
A nominal sentence may be denied by maA.
A general negation may be expressed by laA, which denies the class; the noun loses the nunation and is in the accusative.
If there are two clauses, the nominative may be used in both.
The defective verb lay-sa ‘it is not’ has no imperfect, is followed by a noun in the accusative or by b with the genitive. Sometimes it is reduced in meaning to ‘not’.
Verbal sentences: The past is denied by maA with the perfect or by lam- with the jussive.
The future is denied by bal- with the subjunctive; here the subjunctive stands in a main sentence.
maA with the imperfect denies the present.
laA with the imperfect is general negation and may refer to any time.
After another negative laA may be used to continue a series of denials; the time is that of the first.
laA with the perfect denies a wish.
laA after an oath denies the future.
laA with the jussive is a negative command.
lammaA with the jussive means ‘not yet’.
bal- introduces a correction.
ghay-ruN is a noun meaning ‘change’; in the construct states it means first ‘other’ and then ‘not’.