The Particles

Temporal Conjunctions

: lammaA لَمَّا with the perfect denotes a defnite event in the past and means ‘when’ or ‘after’.

lammaA لَمَّا with the jussive means ‘not yet’.

mataYمَتَى ‘when’ is first an interrogative adverb. As a conjunction it is treated as a conditional particle.

eidh- إِذْ ‘when’ may be followed by the perfect or imperfect and usually refers to the past but often into ‘because’.

It may be followed by a nominal sentence.

eidhaA أِذَا ‘when’ refers to the future though the perfect is used with it; it is often treated as a conditional particle.

Both eidh- أِذْ and eidhaAاِذَأ are used to introduced a fact which is not the direct consequence of what has gone before; hence they often suggest the sudden or unexpected. eidh- أِذْ takes a verbal sentence after it and eidhaAاْذَا (usually wa eidhaA وَ أِذَا or faeidhaAفَأِذَا ) takes a nominal sentence.

eidhaA أِذَا may be construed with bب ; two forms are possible.

HattaY حَتَّى ‘until’ when temporal is used wth the perfect or the imperfect indicative.

حَتّى With the subjunctive it means ‘so that’, ‘until’ if any wish or purpose is intended.

It is also used to coordinate two statements and mean ‘then, later on’

bay-naA بَيْنَا – bay-namaA بَيْنَمَا ‘while’ takes either a verbal or nominal sentence.

Often combined with eidh- أِذْ .

maAمَا is used with the perfect but refers to the present with the sense ‘as long as’

kamaA ‘as’ it passes easily to a sense of time.

Many prepositions can كَمَا be converted into conjunctions by combining them with ean-أَنْ or maA مَا . ean-أَنْ governs the subjunctive.

eilaY ean- إِلَى ‘until’ ba`-daA ean-بَعْدَا أَنْ ‘after’; qab-la maA قَبْلَ مَا ‘before’

Additional Particles. Pronouns min- (originally a noun ‘part&;) from, of, then.

ean- أنْ ‘from’ (often in the realm of ideas)

eailaY ‘to, towards’

hattaY ‘to, even’. It cannot take suffixes.

li ‘to, for, belonging to’.

fiy ‘in, concerning’.

bi ‘by, at, with (instrumental)’

ma`a ‘with (accompaniment)’.

mun-dhuN ‘since, for (time)’.

naH-wa ‘towards, according, about (not of place)’.

`inda ‘beside, in the opinion of’.

bay-na ‘between’ usually reapted).

taH-tu ‘under’.

faw-qa ‘over, above’.

duwna ‘below, between (as being an obstacle to the meeting of two things’.

qab-la ‘before (time)’

ba`-da ‘after (time)’.

eamaAma ‘before (place)’.

quddaAma ‘before (place)’.

waraAe_a ‘behind’.

Haw-la ‘around (place)’


‘in possession of’.

Many prepositions can be turned into conjunctions by joining them to ean-